Bilirubin is a waste product from the breakdown of haemoglobin. It is formed in the liver and excreted in the bile. High levels of bilirubin in the blood will cause jaundice resulting in a yellowness of the skin and the white part of the eyes. High level is associated with liver disease and haemolytic anaemias.
Total Protein (TP)
Total protein is composed of albumin and globulin, produced mainly by the liver. Some common causes of a high level are chronic liver disease, dehydration, chronic infection and alcoholism. Low levels may be caused by severe liver disease, malnutrition and chronic renal failure.
Albumin acts as a transport protein for some drugs and a few other substances. Decreased levels may occur in liver disease, starvation and protein loss.
Globulin forms the main transport system for various substances as well as constituting the antibody system that fights infections. High levels could be due to liver problems, infections, chronic illness and sometimes multiple myeloma. Low level is linked to malnutrition.
A/G Ratio (Albumin/Globulin)
This ratio is used to evaluate the state of liver as well as the kidney. A low ratio is indicative of liver damage.
SGOT is an enzyme present in the cells of many organs such as the liver, heart, skeletal muscle and blood cells. High levels of SGOT in the blood are often associated with cell destruction in organs like acute myocardial infarction (heart attack) and hepatitis.
SGPT is an enzyme found in large concentrations in the liver. Damage to liver cells causes large amount of the enzyme to be released into the blood stream. High levels are caused by liver disease where there is damage to the liver cells.
Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP)
ALP is an enzyme present in the bone and liver. High concentration is found in children with growing bones. High levels are seen in bone disease and liver disorder.
Gamma GT (GGT)
This enzyme is present in the liver as well as other tissues. Damage to liver cells will cause it to be released in large amounts into the blood stream. Very high levels are seen in alcoholic cirrhosis and other serious liver disorders.